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triticum durum wheat

(1798) International Common Names. Durum wheat is an important food crop in the world and an endemic species of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The terms ‘wheat’ and ‘bread wheat’ will be used as general terms to refer to T. aestivum throughout this document. Durum wheat semolina is the only raw material permitted for pasta production by national laws in Italy, France, and Greece. Durum wheat is very hard, which facilitates a high yield of semolina with minimal production of flour. Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. Raised bread and flatbread are also Durum wheat’s specialty. Lerner et al. In sensory testing, all substituted pastas showed a profile distinctly different from the control, approaching but not as extreme as the results reported for a commercial whole meal pasta. Today, smallholder farmers still grow it on marginal lands … The cultivar Senatore Cappelli (know as Cappelli) is an historical durum wheat genotype selected from a North African landrace by N. Strampelli and registered in 1915. The protein content in durum wheat can range from 9 to 18%. Cooking loss was much greater in the non-heated bran substituted pastas than the control, but this was reduced significantly (although still greater than the control) using heat-treated bran. Triticum turgidum Durum Wheat Svevo (RefSeq Rel. Durum Wheat probably originated by natural mutation from Emmer wheat, which was the first wheat used by man. Triticum aestivum (common wheat or bread wheat) Etymology . Mike J. Sissons, Christopher M. Fellows, in Wheat and Rice in Disease Prevention and Health, 2014, Kordonowy and Youngs found that incorporation of 10–30% durum wheat bran in spaghetti reduced the degree of protein loss on cooking and the extent of checking (minute cracks on the pasta surface that can lead to strand breakage), but otherwise had deleterious effects.82 They reported mean bran particle sizes in the range of 0.15–0.17 mm, measured by laser diffraction. Varieties of this species grown in the United States are all spring wheats. Wetland Status. Semolinas from certain durum wheat varieties grown in some locations produce pasta with a good cooking quality and/or yellow color, whereas other durum wheat varieties give semolina that produces pasta with insufficient cooking characteristics or pigment. The high protein, high amylose, and hardness of the bulgur, due to the boiling and drying process, all contribute to the high resistant starch and high satiety characteristics. After storage of 2 months, residue levels of chlorpyrifos-methyl and malathion in semolina significantly decreased with the same dissipation rate of insecticides as in the stored wheat which can be attributed to the temperature fluctuation. Wheat is a major ingredient in major Western foods as bread, biscuits, pies, cakes, cookies, and breakfast cereals. Wheat was one of the first cereals to be domesticated, originating in the fertile crescent around 7000 years ago. durum) is the only tetraploid species of wheat of commercial importance that is widely cultivated today. Abstract: Durum wheat (Triticum durum) is primarily used for the production of high-quality pasta products because of its certain superior characteristics. Triticum turgidum L. (1753) Preferred Common Name. Durum wheat, which is also known as macaroni wheat is the only species of wheat that is tetraploid, has commercial significance and is still cultivated today. Durum wheat is a hard wheat, and the semolina flour is a granular product composed of evenly sized endosperm particles. It is important to investigate the amount of some chemical residues like organophosphates to the consumers through food chain and particularly in the grains.103 In semolina and spaghetti, pesticides residue levels were investigated during processing of stored wheat at different time periods. prepared durum pasta with 10% to 30% of bran substitution.84 Bran substitution resulted in increased cooking loss, decreased water absorption, firmness, and stickiness. The development of a protein matrix during pasta cooking is important, as a cohesive pasta dough and product is desirable, one which does not split or break apart while being boiled in water (Feillet and Dexter, 1996). However, the expected energy savings at the drying step were not observed in this case. L. Saulnier, ... X. Rouau, in Comprehensive Glycoscience, 2007, Durum wheat semolina serves commonly as the starting material for pasta manufacture. Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. All pastas incorporating bran scored significantly inferior in sensory evaluations of texture, flavor, and color. Stems generally are pithy internallv and leaves are relatively broad. One hundred grams of whole grain hard red winter wheat contains about 12.6 g of protein, while the same weight of hard red spring wheat contains about 15.4 g of protein. According to the existing literature, gluten quality and quantity are the most important factors affecting cooking quality, but starch and minor constituents such as soluble and insoluble pentosans, lipids, lipoproteins, various enzymes, and products of enzyme reactions could also be involved. Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum) or pasta wheat compared with common bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is known for its hardness, protein, intense yellow colour, nutty flavour and excellent cooking qualities. Dry heat-treated bran gave products only marginally firmer than the pastas substituted with raw bran. Sarkar, in Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition), 2003. Commercial semolina with fewer than 200 specks per dm2 is desirable, and gives pasta with a good esthetic appearance. Durum wheat, or Triticum turgidum, is the second most cultivated species of wheat after bread wheat, which is also called common wheat or Triticum … Pasta containing 40–50% wheat bran dried at 80°C was prepared by Sudha et al.83 Reductions in firmness from 156 to 113 mN were seen on going from a control pasta to a 50% bran pasta made with untreated bran, but bran that had been steam heat-treated before addition gave a considerably firmer product (130.5 mN at 50% substitution). ): Origin, Cultivation and Potential Expansion in Sub-Saharan Africa. Carryover Percentages of the Pesticides from Wheat to Semolina/Flour and Spaghetti/Cookies on Step-Wise Basis, R. Cubadda, M. Carcea, in Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (Second Edition), 2003, The raw material of choice for pasta production is semolina from durum wheat, although, for various reasons, the industry uses flours from soft and hard wheats, corn, and other cereals. This difference may be due to their methods of application and physic-chemical characteristics. Pasta is another important value added food product produced by durum wheat milling into semolina. Durum wheat, also called Durum, (species Triticum durum), hard wheat (q.v.) Development of primary and secondary triticales and examples of substitutional triticales, Muhammad Atif Randhawa, ... Muhammad Sameem Javed, in Wheat and Rice in Disease Prevention and Health, 2014. Dough development time increased steadily with degree of bran addition, firmness decreased, cooking loss increased, and the weight of the cooked pasta decreased. Water used for pasta making are removed during milling, but also a genetic resource common! 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